Ocean shipping undergoes great change throughout the world

From the direction of loading and unloading cargo at the port, modern technology has spread into almost every aspect of shipping. This is a look at some of the technologies that have played an important role in changing the face of the world's shipping industry.

Shipping has undergone a great change

From the direction of loading and unloading cargo at the port, modern technology has spread into almost every aspect of shipping. This is a look at some of the technologies that have played an important role in changing the face of the world's shipping industry.

Maritime transport or the transport of people and goods by sea is one of the oldest and widely used forms of transportation for mankind. From the time of legendary explorers like Christopher Columbus and Vasco da Gama have explored the legendary seas on their ancient ship which were equipped with only a compass and some other basic equipment, both both transport goods, and shipping as a means of transportation has undergone a major change. According to the International Chamber of Shipping by ship, international shipping today translates to about 90 percent of total world trade by volume. With the increase in the number of vessels at the same time, there is a need for a continuous increase in innovation in the field of maritime surveillance. Transport companies these days have begun deploying modern technology to ensure enhanced surveillance, efficiency and safety for their fleets.

Importance of ocean shipping
Shipping is an extremely important but often less visible part of the world economy. The sea route is one of the main channels through which goods are shipped worldwide. According to Indian Government statistics, about 95 percent of the country's trade is shipped by sea.
For a developed economy like the United States, shipping is equally important. According to figures published in the book Geographic Information Infrastructure for Transport Organizations: Working towards a platform to raise decisions, revealing that ports are especially important for the platform. The US economy accounts for 95 percent of commercial transactions. Besides, the sea transportation system supports nearly 13 million jobs in the country.

Geospatial technology in shipping
Due to the rapid increase in global ocean transportation in recent years (Figure 1 shows the position of each ship - more than 20 meters long - in the world at a time), ship position systems and navigation has become the main focus of the world. The ship's navigation system is a mobile communication platform, which integrates GPS, GIS and wireless communications to provide rich data such as the position, speed and status of a ship in mode. real time. This data is processed, the position and movement of the ship can be displayed on a digital map.

GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems), a global satellite navigation system, has been used in the marine environment since the late 1960s as a transit system, used primarily by the US Navy. In 1996, the US provided GPS to IMO (International Maritime Organization) as an input to the World-Wide Radionavigation System (WWRNS). Following IMO recognition, GPS has become the main tool that relies on radio waves for navigation in the maritime domain.

With the advent of GPS, the new application became a pioneer including providing accurate information to assist in the assembly of large ships. GPS information is used to assist pilots and ship captains to identify a ship in motion when it is approaching a jetty.

Describing the use of GPS that revolutionized ship navigation, Captain Charanjit Singh, Mumbai Port Trust said: "In high seas, there is no landmarks and the ship's crew depends solely on the location of the ship. sun and stars to find their way GPS system gives you accurate and easier locations to find out if the ship is going astray, so it saves you time and time save distance and save fuel. "

One of the most important initiatives in the shipping industry, set to revolutionize the world's maritime industry, is E-Navigation. Driven by IMO, the initiative aims to bring improved safety and security of transportation through better organization and data exchange between ships and shore.

One of the main goals of E-Navigation is to integrate existing and new navigation tools such as Automatic Identification System (AIS), Electronic Display Charts and Information Systems (ECDIS) , radio navigation, VTMS and the Global Maritime Safety System (GMDSS) in a system that results in increased maritime safety while simultaneously reducing the burden. for the navigator.

Automatic identification system (AIS)
For a ship sailing at sea, the process of identifying other ships in the vicinity becomes extremely important to make a timely decision to avoid collisions.

AIS is an on-board automated tracking mechanism that locates other nearby ships by exchanging electronic data with them. AIS function by integrating a standard VHF transceiver with a GPS receiver and other electronic positioning sensor AIS-equipped vessels can be monitored by AIS base stations and satellites equipped with special AIS receivers.

"AIS is basically used as a tool to avoid collisions. But, it also has a different role. It can be used to create a good surveillance network because you can track transfers. So it can be used to enhance the safety of the coast, "said PP Sinha, General Department of Lighthouses and Lightships, Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Indian Government.

Ship traffic management service (VTMS)

Similar to the air traffic control system, VTMS is a sea traffic monitoring system established by the port authority to ensure smooth operation of the vessel. A standard VTMS implements a combination of radar, surveillance cameras, circuits and AIS to track ship movements and ensure maritime safety in a specific geographic area. The system displays real-time positioning data overlaid over an electronic chart display system.

"For the purpose of managing ship traffic, GIS is used for onshore management of ship traffic. For example, monitoring keeping a tidal distribution window of a ship is done by means of support display functions integrated into GIS "explains Dr. Michael Baldauf from World Maritime University.

Currently, VTMS can only present a two-dimensional image of a ship moving in a designated area on an electronic chart, which has some limitations. The performance of radar systems is susceptible to adverse effects due to weather conditions. Besides, the radar blips can merge when the ship is near each other.

To overcome these limitations, a 3D VTS system has been developed recently, which is based on information from these existing and additional radar systems with input from tide gauges, meteorological stations and other Automated identification systems rely on radio to present a three-dimensional image and also provide actual representations of all vessels, waterways, ports and maritime brands such as buoys.

"VTS is essential for maintaining maritime safety in port waters. They are used by harbor masters and their operational staff to effectively manage traffic, navigation and containment. block any dangerous situation, "said Dr. Rafal Goralski from GeoVS Limited, the company developing the VTS 3D system.

Responsible agency: Union of Science and High-Tech Production and Telecommunications (HTI) - Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
Editor in chief: Vo Tran
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